Preparing General Studies for civil services

A good base in general knowledge is important for clearing the civil services exam and for the career ahead. As i had mentioned in a previous post, this job requires broad-based people with a good understanding of the things happening around them. As far as the exam is considered, 600 marks in the GS papers + 200 in essay + 300 in interview depends on your general knowledge base. And off late, the second paper in Public administration is more like a GS paper 3. Thus around 1100-1400 marks depends directly on your general knowledge base.

Preparation for general studies is composed of two parts:

  • Conventional topics.
  • General knowledge and current affairs.
Before I go into the books, some general points on preparation and approach:
  • Make notes as you read. It’s impossible to come back to the text books during revision. Notes should be so comprehensive that once you are done, you would not have to take the text-book again.
  • The basic approach should be STUDY-REVISE-IMPROVISE.
  • Dont use guides, standard preparatory material or NCERT text books.
  • Keep on referring to previous years papers to check if you have missed any topic.
  • Prepare for the subjective papers ( i.e mains). Note down extra facts for the prelims as you make descriptive notes. Prelims is just a necessary evil.

Conventional Topics:

It is composed of:

1. Indian History :

Pre-modern history (before Europeans) has lost significance. Last year no questions were asked in mains. Besides, it is too bulky and is not worth the effort. One need to have a good understanding of the National movement(1800s-1947).

One also need to study about the expansion and the decline of the other Europeans, the expansion of British empire and the administrative development in India during the British period ( 1650-1857). Try to get some book on Indian History from the library to make short notes. Brief notes will do for this section.

2. Geography:

Use NCERT books only for geography. Non- geography optional students don’t have to go in-depth. Read

  • Indian Geography ( NCERT class XI)
  • Fundamentals of physical geography (NCERT class XI)

Google and make notes on unfamiliar terms you may come across in the newspapers.

3. Indian Constitution:

Any good book on the constitution is fine. ‘Introduction to the constitution of India‘  by D.D. Basu is the book that i used. Read it also cover to cover.

4. Indian Economy:

One needs to know about some basic terms of economics like repo rate, reverse repo, CRR, SLR etc. These are needed for understanding articles in newspapers also. Just google them when you come across then in the papers and keep a separate note-book. Read one good book on Indian economy. I used Indian economy  by Dutt & Sundaram. The book by Uma Kapila is also a good one. In both of these books, each chapter deals with an issue. So make notes keeping in mind the requirements of a 20-30 marker. Download the latest Economic Survey of India and update the stats as you make notes. Also leave some space after each chapter to add new info from newspapers as and when they come.

Also read Chapter 1 and the chapter explaining about the government’s poverty alleviation schemes ( chapter 11 in 2010 survey). Follow the budget. Read some business newspapers at that time and also read the summary of the budget which will be posted in the net.

5. Government policies and programmes:

Make notes on the policies that you come across in the newspapers. But this will not be exhaustive. Use India yearbook published by the Publications division for an exhaustive approach. It’s a huge book with a lot of unnecessary facts and details which should be skipped. Just make short notes on the various programmes ministry-wise. Anay dwivedi ( AIR-5, cse 2009) has this to say about reading the Year book :

If you already read the IYB for prelims, just go through what you underlined and revise your notes. But if you did not, then apart from the GOVERNMENT SCHEMES and agricultural data, read the following chapters from IYB 2010:

Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11 (NCES only), 13 (terms like FIPB, FCCB, ECB, ADR/GDR, FDI, etc), 18, 24, 25 and 28.

Note: I have not specified chapters 16, 17, etc as I have assumed that you must have covered all the government schemes such as NRHM, JNNURM, etc irrespective of where they are given in the book.

In Mains 2009 many questions could be answered on the basis of information provided in the IYB, e.g. significance of coastal regions, UMPPs, BSUP, fruit production in India and NNRMS.

6. Science and Technology:

Use wikipedia extensively for this. Find out about new topics as you come across them in the S&T page of The Hindu. Also, make short notes on emerging technologies and recent nobel winning technologies from these pages

Exhaustive preparation on these topics can be very hard. Try to cover as much ground as possible and hope for the best. When writing answers, try to point out the applications rather than elaborating on the technological part.

General knowledge and current affairs:

This is where you have to use newspapers and current affairs magazines. This is perhaps the most important part because if you see the 2010 GS paper, questions are asked about the Palestine crisis, Sudan civil war, Cambodia, CWG etc. I recommend The Hindu and Frontilne. The Hindu has less unwanted news and has a balanced perspective on issues and is pro people. You shouldn’t be an ultra leftist or a right-wing hawk when writing the answers. The editorials and Op-eds present a very balanced picture on issues.

When reading newspapers, go beyond the issue. Use the newspaper as a guide to broaden your GK. So when you come across something you don’t know in the newspaper, google it up and make a comprehensive note on the topic.For eg, if the news item is “Pakistan Prez visits India”, I will google about India-Pak relations and make notes on it with a historical perspective and also leave some space to update future news. If the news is ‘ Jacques Diouf assumes charge as head of FAO’ , I will make notes on FAO and other UN organisations from Wikipedia. The advantage of using wiki is that when you read about one topic, you can move to other topics by clicking on the ‘Related’ links. Follow the references in wiki if you want to go deeper or confirm something.

I had kept two separate category of notebooks. One for noting down the events, date wise and the other for noting down the issues after researching in the net. The advantage of keeping the second type of notebook on issues is that when you revise you will have a complete picture under each heading, i.e, the historical perspective + all the events in the last 2 years. This should be done on a daily basis without any gap until the interview is over. You will need 2-2.5 hours daily for this initially. You can bring down the time as you progress with your prepsReading topics of Indian economy and op-eds from any one of the business newspapers will also help. I used Business line. I had also subscribed EPW after my prelims and read articles selectively.

Extra Reading

Also make notes on topics that you come across in previous years papers from wiki and net.

Note:

  • Just exploit the internet. You have all the information you need at your fingertips. The coaching institutes and magazines also make their notes using the information available in the net. Why take secondary info at exorbitant costs when you can get the primary info and the whole picture free of cost.
  • There is not strict boundary between conventional topics and GK. You should update your notebooks with new info as and when you come across them in the papers.


 
 
 
 
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Posted on May 27, 2011, in Civil services, from my life, Indian Administrative Service and tagged , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 95 Comments.

  1. Hi Gokul,

    Thanks for the detailed post. Didn’t you refer any current affair magazine specifically meant for CSE (like Competition wizard or Civil Services Chronicle etc.)?

    Thanks to reply.
    Rohit

    • I didnt. You shouldnt use it as a primary material. Use it at the end of the month to supplement your notes and to make sure you havent missed out anything

  2. Makrand Kumar

    priceless…thanks!!!

  3. Sk Jahiruddin

    Gokul,
    Can you please elaborate your strategy for Sc and technology part in GS little more?

  4. Hi,just wanted to know where did you refer for computer related terminologies?

    • Those things dont come any more. Still make notes on important topics with current relevance from wikipedia

  5. Hi,
    Can you please tell from when one should start preparing the notes effectively from newspapers for both prelims and mains. I will be appearing in CSE 2012.
    One more thing, it gets very difficult to make out what to read and what to leave from the Science and Tech. page of The Hindu. How to deal with this?

    • 1. One should ideal have a good idea about current affairs atleast one year before the prelims you intend to give. Still, recent events will have more weightage for both mains and interview. But try to be as broad as possible wrt non-current affairs general knowledge

      2. As far S&T page is concerned, make notes on new and emerging fields, topics that have relevance in day to day life.

  6. Dear Sir,

    More or less I am following the same strategy as you have suggested. But some clarifications required:

    1. For IR, will newspapers articles and news only do? Additionally I am doing World Focus magazine.

    2. For other current areas in GS can newspaper be only relied upon?

    3. One of the problems I am currently facing is that I am not able to retain many points of a topic after I read it. Is it common? Will reading again and again do? While writing the mains have you felt that you could not write all the points of a topic including that of pub ad that you prepared?

    Thanks
    Amit

    • 1. As i said, make notes from wikipedia…Also google important relations like ‘India-Pak’, ‘India-US’…..That will give extra articles, recent joint declarations etc

      2. I found all my requirements met through hindu + frontline…..I was reading businessline after prelims…. I read Indian Express too on the week of my interview just to make sure I didnt miss out on anything.

      3. That quite natural. there is just too much to study. devise a suitable method to revise. Some do it on a weekly basis. My strategy was to finish off the syllabus and then revise. You do a lot of rounds of revision before going to the exam. That will help in remembering

  7. kindly post ur stratergy for pubad.
    1. how did u prepared for it,paper 1 and paper 2 both.
    2. sources used.u relayed on 1,2 books or more anay dwivedi says ” it is better to read 1 book 5 times than reading 5 book once.”
    3. coching if any. is it really required if subject is not of ur graduation
    4. did u read yojna kurukshetra if yes how to implement it in our ans.
    5. it will be really helpful if u can upload ur notes as anay did in his blog.

    • I will try to post about pubad asap. Btw

      1. I agree with anay’s views on books. Its better to use as little books as possible for pubad. for gs too, my strategy was to rely on one good book and make good notes on that.
      2. I didnt read yojana/kurukshetra bcoz they were not available in my town.
      3. Dont think my notes (esp on pubad) are as good as anay’s.

  8. Did you attend any mock tests/test series of sorts for either gs or pub adm?

  9. Sagar Upadhyay

    Hello sir, i am a student of NIT, allahabad (Electrical) and just now i have completed my third year. I am also preparing for CSE. I would like you to share how you managed your time between college and IAS preparation. I know that there is minimal pressure in final year but for CSE we need to be completely dedicated. Moreover, after completion of your B.Tech how you managed with the company where you were placed and your preparation. Waiting for your reply sir.

    Thanks
    Sagar

    • Hi Sagar

      I started during my 3-4 th year hols. Got around 2 months full and hence could lay a base. It was hard preparing in s7 as i had engagements in 2 afnun sessions a week. But still tried to find as much time as possible. S8 was cool as i was free on all afnun sessions and some teachers allowed me to skip their classes. Also my main project team leader excused me from all work!! i took 2 medical leaves of 10 days each in both the semesters.

      I didnt register for placements. This is my first job (IAS).

  10. which books were used by u for pubad paper 1 and 2 both, can u list them .
    how is avasthi and avasthi for indian adminstration.

  11. Sagar Upadhyay

    Thank you sir for your reply. Sir, what was your strategy for preparation? Do you followed some timeline ?(like upto september i have to complete … ) How much time did you devoted daily for your preparation?

    • Hi sagar
      My timeline during may 2009- may 2010 was made taking into account my exams and vacations. For me the idea was to do as much mains stuff as possible before prelims, revise gs and physics (previous pattern) comfortable number of times b4 prelims and finish off the entire syllabus by mid july 2010. Revision only from then till exams.

  12. hey gokul u didnt reply my previous question.?

    • Hi alok
      I am not in a position to write a detailed post in the next 2-3 days. will write in detail about pubad and physics as soon as i can

  13. diensh kumar

    plz tell me the books for public administartion and sociology mains.

    • saurabh meena

      hi gokul,
      first of all congratulations frm my side,
      actually my optionals are geography and pub ad….i started preparation this year only and i am working in DRDO so having very less time in weekdays…can you please suggest me a good strategy for praparing pub-ad subject on my own….one more thing can you please highlight how to go for editorial part of the hindu while making notes….
      hope you will reply soon
      thnxx n congrats once again….

      • I will write in detail about pubad soon. I am not in a position to write a long article for the next 3-4 days.

        About hindu editorial, use it for opinion formation. Read and understand the stand taken by the hindu. If it is about a recent issue on which you have made notes, add these points under that section. More than giving specific points on an issue, it will help you in forming opinions.

  14. hi Gokul,

    I just wanted to inquire which topics to start off with from dutt and sundaram for economy.

    I am a science background student and am curious whether i need to read the entire book

    Regards
    Raghuveer

  15. hello gokul sir. congratulations on ur success.now days people forget near ones but u did a grt job by creating a blog for future aspirants.and i think this is just a beginning for doing grt works for others.after u bcom the dm do such kind of grt works.our bst wishes r always with you.achieve success with flying colours.

  16. hi gokul,atleast give list of books for pubad which u used i know u will write seprate post on pubad later but i have
    1.pubad- avasthi and maheshwari
    2.avasthi and avasthi -indian admin
    3.avasthi and maheswari-indian admin
    4.new horizon-mohit bhattacharya
    5.nicholus henry
    6.sharma and sadna
    7.ignou notes.

    a)which 1 i should not refer
    b)any other books which are requried.

  17. sir u have got 116 marks in essay,,,,last year essay paper was bit surprise 4 many. so could you plz tell us ur stategy for essay preparation,,i’m witing 4 ur reply sir…plz do reply

  18. did you read dutt sundaram cover to cover

    • I read all but a few chapter of dutt & sundaram…But i skipped a lot of paragraphs and data within the chapters….

      Read every chapter and make notes on the major issues discussed in the chapter. Skip all other irrelevant parts

  19. which book u refered for indian adminstration

    • I used Indian Admin by Goyal and Arora and “indian adminstration” by S.R maheshwari (pub: orient blackswan).

      Supplemented all this info with 2nd ARC reports

  20. which books did u read for paper 1 of pubad

  21. sir plz answer my question regarding essay

  22. gokul sir! will u plz provide the flipkart link or any other link of “goyal arora” and “maheshwari” books. n plz write also on this blog for pub ad preparation. it will be quite helpful for all of us.

    i will be vry grtful to u……

  23. Sir, thanks for your splendid post.

    I have some queries:

    GS prelims
    1. which book did you follow for ancient and medieval indian history.
    2. for world geography.

    GS mains
    2. is spectrum-statistics enough? which book did you follow?

    3. did you memorized all the articles of constitution for polity by heart or selective portion?

    4. preparation strategy for Essay.

    Thanks

  24. Sir thanks for your splendid blog.
    I have some queries:

    GS Prelims
    1.which book did you follow for ancient and medieval indian history?
    2.for world geography

    GS Mains
    3.is spectrum statistics enough and which book did you follow
    4.did you memorize all the articles of constitution or just selective learning

    • 1. I skipped ancient and medieval
      2. I used only the two books mentioned for geography
      3. Should be enough. I used brilliant’s material on stats
      4. Remember only important ones like article 14,19,74,352,356,368 etc

  25. Hi Gokul,

    As far as GS prep is concerned, would it be a good strategy not to concentrate on Intl issues as much as Indian issues?

    • More questions are being asked from international issues nowadays. Just make sure that you read the international page in Hindu and also make notes about important issues like israel-palestine, sudan civil war, arab spring etc

  26. how is brilliant’s material for gs and current affairs

  27. congratulation sir,
    sir plz answer my last query regarding essay preparation..sir u have got 116 marks in essay,,,,last year essay paper was bit surprise 4 many. so could you plz tell us ur stategy for essay preparation,,i’m witing 4 ur reply sir…

  28. Gokul, thanks for replying my previous question.

    Let me know if my observation is correct here: UPSC never asks questions regarding scams which bring shame to the country (e.g. 2G scam) neither it asks questions on such organisations (RSS or Shiv Sena).

    Thanks in advance.

    • Somewhat. There can be questions on issues but issues like RSS can be too hot. Besides, the examiner may be biased also. So those kind of qns are not always asked

  29. hello sir,
    iwant to know how should i prepare for sci and tech portions of upsc from prelim and mains point of view for csat 2012?? any book?? any magazines?? or anythng else u used??

  30. hiii gokul , kindly post ur stratergy for pubad its been a long time. u said earlier tht u will post abt pubad asap.

  31. Hello Sir..

    I am Shefali , I came across of ur Blog which is really very helpful & fruitful for such aspirants who are planning to sit in CSE, I went thru of ur post regarding ” how to tackle with GS” which gives me an extensive view to tackle GS in pre+mains & also on GA+C.A (current affairs) .
    Still, I have some doubts or things in my mind regarding study pattern of GS + 2 optional in a year as from this year ICS pattern has been changed to CSAT in paper 2nd so now there is no scope of optional paper, but for Mains still I have to prepare 2 optional papers i.e. in my case these are –
    1- Economics
    2- Psychology
    I want to know what study pattern u followed in a year?
    a- Whether u were concentrated on preparing GS+ both optional papers simultaneously by dividing 24 hrs in a day or went with GS+ 1 optional in 3 months and GS+2nd optional in next 3 months and then full-fledged revision in remaining months.?
    b- If U divided your 24 hrs as per ur study pattern, may I know what was it? If I take case of GS i.e 2 hrs for history, 2 hrs for geography, 2 hrs for sci and tech, remaining time for optional?

    • I did it topic wise. I would take one topic and finish it off before moving to the next. But the newspaper reading part happened in parallel. Idea should be to finish off the entire syllabus and do one round of revision by the time prelims results comes.

      • Thank you Sir for response..
        actually my main concern was in my previous post was .. did u took ur both optional along with Gs prep or took one wid Gs and other after completing former one ??

        and other query is as now a days more science background que are being asked this yr also specially of bio diversity. m referring The Hindu i.e Thursday edition but I don’t think it is sufficient, becoz it deals only wid latest researches + techniques, but most of the times in ICS exams most traditional + concept based que are being asked .. so pls let me know how to prepare them some ppl say.. to refer NCERT books.. is it ok ??

      • I was doing all the topics in parallel….NCERT books wont help you with the kind of qns asked nowadays….you need to study more and in depth. I will suggest reading articles from wikipedia on hot topics and emerging fields

  32. Hi,

    Recently I have decided to go for civil services exam, I have two attempts left (I haven’t prepared for it earlier). earlier did BTech, then an IT job for 5years and now pursuing MBA from a reputed institute.I am sure I will make it to IAS along with my future job unless UPSC comes up with weird guidelines. I am good in building perspective about topics but I lack in knowledge. I don’t have time left to prepare my own notes for any subject. Kindly suggest how to choose the ready made material offered by various coaching institutes. I don’t seek any shortcut but planning to build upon the ready made notes. As I read that the Brilliant notes were useless kindly help me with the knowledge of good ones.
    Also please let me know if there is any marked shift in the pattern of GS paper 1 questions as compared to what used to be asked earlier? Paper-2 I need not worry about. Recently I tried CSAT-2011 at home and scored 35 and 150 respectively in paper 1 and 2.
    I seek your help to choose a good study material and coaching institute. I plan to attend coaching only for the mains and that too after prelims get over. I am based out of Delhi.

    • I have already posted about the material that i used. I have no idea about coaching as i studied from home

  33. thank you sir..

  34. sir,
    its good to know that you had prepared frm home.iwant to ask 1.have u used-outlook,newsweek,business world,panorama like magazines or not?? r these useful for writing answers in gs and essay?? 2. what r your hobbies and how you managed them during your preparation days?? 3. have you enrolled yourself into any social organizations like greenpeace india,,rti ?? any social service groups you joined?? will joining these groups gives marks,any extra marks, in interview??

    Thank You

    Veer

    • 1. I used only frontline..knowledge never goes waste…but the focus should be on intensive preps
      2. I go for debates and was involved in activities in college…i tried to focus more on preps during the last 2 years.
      3. No i didnt. I appeared right after my graduation in 2010. If you have done meaningful work in social service it will help. But if it is just for the sake of impressing the interviewers, it can backfire.

  35. First of all i want to give my heartiest Congrates. to you. I am a Chartered Accountatnt by profession. I am preparing for Civil Service Exam, 2012. Till now i am reading the blogs of all the toppers and successfull candidates. I have noted down books recommended by you.

    Please, guide me on my optionals in Main. I am confused beween – Commerce, Law, Economics. Further, how much i should read till dec with strategy As i have to travel alot for my office work

    • I have no idea about any other optional. Choose according to your interests and after consulting with people who had cleared with those papers

  36. do u left the answer which u were not sure in mains or u wrote some thing in the answer.
    eg i have studied kautilya but didnt came arround this topic” the rule of kings depends on wriiten records” why did kautiyla favour codification of law.? wht should i write i have read from goyal arrora and even prasad and prasad but there is nothing specific about it. but i can manage 1 or 2 points , should i exapand the answer by beating arround the bush.

    • One should be specific. You can extrapolate your knowledge and attempt such questions. For eg, kautilya talks abouts authority over power. Codification helps in enforcing authority….You wont get direct questions in pubad.. you will have to connect what you have learned.

  37. Gokul,
    How did you prepare for the ‘International Relations’ topic? This seems to be quite a broad topic and I am not able to get some good resource for this so far. Please help.

  38. Hi Gokul,

    I’ve started reading datta and sundharam for indian economy but that thick book is not melting. Pl let me know, which chapters to focus in that book.

    thanks in advance:)

    • Start with part 5. Those topics are interesting. You dont have to read all the chapters…Skip those chapters that you feel is not relevant for the exam

  39. hi gokul,
    Plz help me out
    ther are lot of books in stalls for gs, but which book should i refer as standard book.

    Thank you
    kiran

  40. hi gokul,

    i am reading datta and sundharam for indian economy but that fat book is not melting. Pl mention the chapters which are important in that book for gs mains.

    thanks in advance:)

  41. Sir, have you read these following 1.books —human development report…..world dev. report….indian economic problms and prospcts…….india”s eco. reforms…..political eco. of development….adjusting to reality..?? 2.newspapers–jansatta, eco.times 3.news magazines—– the week..outlook….india today….times….mainstream 4.career magazines—-vigyan pragati….competition master….5.ignou notes…..6.britannica year book.

    iwant to ask have you followed these materials for gs mains and prelims preparation??

    Thank you

    Veer

    • I have read the summary of HDR and WDR. Referred IGBOU for some pubad topics. I didnt use any other books u have mentioned

  42. sir i am fresher… I had started my preparation with NCERT books from 6th std… i plan to study science, Social science upto 10th….And every subject books from 11th and 12th except the language..Only very few selected topics from maths..Together with newspaper reading and CSAT.. just now i had finished my graduation..Soon i will get into the job so i fix 6-8 month for these then after getting a perfect guide i am like to move further.Meanwhile i will get through in languages..I think Public admin is important for my carrier and i like to choose that…i will develop my interst towards it by reading the basic think(pub admin super 50 by shubhra saxena)… please give me some suggestion and point mistakes in that(if any)..I got some clear ideas only through varun kumar site , shubhra saxena and few toppers like u sir/……plz reply

    • I have written about all those in my previous posts. I found NCERT useless from the exam perspective (personal view)

  43. dear sir!i am reading dutt & sundarm whether all chapters are important in it if yes please also tell me that all topics of every chapter is important or not..

  44. sir,
    iwant to ask which general knowledge book(s) you used for upsc preparation and how you managed to read these thick gk books?? have you read all the pages or selectively??please give me some tips on how to read important pages w.r.t upsc requirements, mains specially.

    thank you

    rohit

  45. hello sir,
    I want to ask whether it is possible to prepare pub add after prelims bcoz I want to prepare well for psychology optional along with the GS .My psychology syllabus would be covered upto December,so less time for pub add.So, I am thinking to cover it after giving 2012-prelims.If this is not appropriate strtegy then suggest me how to prepare for pub add.
    thank you,
    Pankaj

    • Its may be possible but i wont recommend that. I had covered 50% of the mains syllabus of both my optionals and full GS b4 prelims…

  46. Sagar Upadhyay

    Hello sir, what was your strategy toward your writing skills? In CSE, its an unequivocal fact that we need to have a good writing skill in order to convey all our views in a smooth way to the examiner. How did you do that? Any daily writing routine or something else?

    • I kept this in mind while making notes. Tried to improve my handwriting throughout my prep days…..

      I spent the time between august-mains exclusively for answer writing……self-evaluated and tried to improve….the points i tried to improve are:
      1. Do i stay within the scope of the question
      2. Is the words allocated for into justified?
      3. Have i answered the basic question.
      4. Have i made it readable (through points, fugures…)

  47. sir as i m on ur path ,doing self study ,sir i want to know that in GS geography ve u learned atlas or not………………………………..n plz guid me abt philosophy as a subject is good or not ……if u ve ne idea…….

  48. hi gokul, as you mention making notes from news paper should be done without a gap…did you do this even few days before prelims and mains??

  49. sir,i want to know how i get maximum marks in geography mains&and also suggest me how i study geo.to get top numbers.and what would be daily routien 4 study mains and optionals.

  50. hello sir , can u please tell any magazine to subscribe from civil services chronicle, civil services times , pratiyogita darpan and how to go about in referring it ?

  51. Awesome guideline, Thanks Gokul and best wishes.!!!

  52. Thanks Gokul Sir For Ur Great Suggestions….

    THANKS SIR

  53. Sir, I’m enrolled in IAS Preliminary General Studies and CSAT Online Video Coaching .. is it good to join a online course… ??

  54. hello sir,
    i am yashwant from pune preparing for the pre 2012 ,could you please tell me which magazines should i read for current affairs thanks lot

  55. Regarding preparation of current affairs, as u said I use the newspaper to expand my gs, note down things that i dont know and later search them up on net..noting down short ones in cpoy and bigger ones making word files.I want to ask how frequently did you revise them, as obviously one time reading doesnt suffice,..u said about reading magazines, cutting editorials, so after reading them for the first time , how frequently did you revise them..please explain in detail

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